Sexuality: The Most Overlooked ADL

As occupational therapists, addressing activities of daily living, or ADLs, is often our bread and butter. It’s easy to see that things like being able to take a shower, getting dressed in the morning, or even just feeding yourself are integral to living a fulfilling life.

Anyone who has experienced difficulty in these areas knows how important those things become when one can no longer complete them. Our job as therapists is to help our clients do them as independently as possible.

However, many practitioners often overlook one of the most important ADLs of all.


Yes, listed right below grooming, bathing, and dressing in the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework (OTPF) is “Sexual Activity,” defined as such:

Engaging in activities that result in sexual satisfaction and/or meet relational or reproductive needs.

Sexuality and the ability to express it is a foundational characteristic of human beings. In a study of patients undergoing physical rehabilitation, 73% responded that they would be interested in discussing and addressing sexuality as part of their rehabilitation plan.

However, most patients do not bring sexuality up unless specifically probed – citing barriers such as embarrassment, not being sure what to say, and confusion about whether it was even an appropriate topic to bring up.

As occupational therapists, we are uniquely qualified to address this topic – our experience in activity analysis, making adaptations and modifications, and providing education tailored to each individual are all great assets.

Furthermore, acknowledging sexuality fits with the holistic values of occupational therapy – we specialize in treating the whole person, even the parts that may not initially be comfortable to discuss.

So why, by and large, are we not addressing sexuality as an ADL?

Most practitioners I’ve talked to have listed a couple reasons: general discomfort with the subject and lack of knowledge on what to recommend. As crazy as it may sound, all it takes is practice to become comfortable with talking about sexuality with your clients.

Think back to the first time you helped someone with toileting, undressing, or bathing. If you’re anything like I am, you felt a bit awkward and a little intimidated. But after a while, it becomes old hat. Sexuality is the same way. Write down the things you might want to say. Practice starting the conversation with a friend, or even in front of a mirror. It gets easier with time.

One tool that I find very helpful in addressing sexuality is the PLISSIT model. This is a framework designed originally for sexologists, but is useful for other clinical practitioners as well.

PLISSIT is an acronym that stands for the following:

P – Permission:

Give explicit permission to the client to discuss the subject. Try saying something like, “I would like you to know that as part of your rehabilitation, I am here if you have any questions on how this may affect your sexuality. If you’d like more specific information or any handouts on the subject, please don’t hesitate to let me know. Do you have any questions now?”

Don’t be discouraged if your patient declines – it’s a difficult topic to discuss and they may not be ready yet. They may return to you later for a discussion, or they may ask for a written handout.

LI – Limited Information:

Provide general information about client’s condition and the effect it has on sexuality, and ask them if they have specific questions or would like more information. This is a great time to have a short handout available.

SS – Specific Suggestions:

If the client responds well to the limited information you give them, you can give more specific suggestions that are tailored to them. Provide adaptations, modifications, or other education for any concerns they have brought up. If they ask a question you don’t know, don’t be ashamed to admit that with the promise that you will research it for them.

IT – Intensive Therapy:

After discussion, if you feel that your client’s needs are beyond your scope of practice, refer them to another professional, such as sex therapist, psychologist, or talk therapist.


Specific OT Interventions Addressing Sexuality

The best advice I can offer for specific interventions is first doing a little research and becoming familiar with your client’s diagnosis and the effect it has on sexuality. There are often resources that specifically address this, but if not, a little critical thinking goes a long way.

For example, a person with multiple sclerosis is likely going to need energy conservation strategies. A person with cerebral palsy may need alternate positioning suggestions. A person with a spinal cord injury may need to use a vibrator or other tool for masturbation when previously they were able to do so by hand.

Don’t be intimidated if you feel like you don’t know everything – you’re there to problem solve and collaborate with your clients, not be a miracle worker. Ask your clients which parts of sexual activity are important to them and go from there.

Remediation Interventions

This is the first approach to take if possible. It involves a rehabilitative or habilitative approach in which skills are restored or gained. Interventions can be physical in nature: increasing range of motion to make more positions available, increasing endurance for longer sessions of sexual activity, or increasing strength to be able to support a partner are all valid interventions.

Treatment methods can also be cognitive – like providing education on contraceptive use for teenagers with intellectual disability, sexual abuse prevention training for children who have trouble communicating, or working on relationship/social skills for adults with mental illness.

A behavioral approach is also applicable here – many individuals with autism or other social disorders often exhibit challenging behaviors during puberty such as public masturbation, unwanted touching of others, or inappropriate conversations. Social Stories can be a great resource for teaching appropriate behavior, and paired with healthy outlets to explore this part of their lives, these teens may stop maladaptive behaviors entirely.

Adaptive/Modification Interventions

Adaptive/modifications are any interventions that seek to change or replace instead of improving baseline skills. It could be providing a client with information on what positions they can have sex in while recovering from a total hip replacement, planning out sexual activity for the time of day when a client with chronic fatigue is most energetic, or compensating for decreased sensation with the use of sex toys.

Providing partner education is also valuable here! Any condition that has lasting repercussions is appropriate for this approach.

In Conclusion

Remember that this can be a sensitive subject for many people, but it is an important one. Try to think about the effect that a loss of sexuality can have on a person, especially on their roles, routines, and social participation.

Realize that you may be the only healthcare professional assisting your client with this, and be a good advocate for them.

Hopefully some of this information and strategies will help you address your clients’ needs more fully!


How do you address sexuality in your daily OT practice? Do you have any questions or suggestions for other practitioners? Let us know in the comments below.


Further recommended resources:

Sexuality and Occupational Therapy: Strategies for Persons With Disabilities

Institute for Sex, Intimacy and Occupational Therapy Website

Addressing Sexuality in Occupational Therapy (AOTA continuing ed article)

This post was originally published on August 22, 2017 and updated on February 1, 2022.

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  • Jennifer August 23, 2017   Reply →

    Thank you for bringing up this topic. It is so important to address this with clients. I appreciate that you used the PLISSIT model-I have used that in practice. I also think it’s important to say that it is ok for a therapist to defer to another OT or therapist if they are not comfortable covering sexuality- trying to cover sexuality if you are uncomfortable can cause feelings of shame in some of our clients if it is not handled appropriately. I really love you blog. Way to go!

  • Lauren Janusz August 24, 2017   Reply →

    Thank you for contributing to this much needed discussion!

  • Teresa February 5, 2019   Reply →


    Does anyone know of any evidence-based articles/interventions about OT and sexuality??

  • Kristen July 15, 2019   Reply →

    Does anyone know about information specific to treating sensory processing dysfunction as it relates sexuality? Is there evidence based information out there?

  • Janine July 7, 2020   Reply →

    My second day in a new job………….The psychologist on my unit has alerted me to a male ABI (RTA) patient who he believes would benefit from getting some sexual relief (he is disinhibited and touching staff inappropriately and has limited speech to express himself). He has significant right sided weakness (dominant hand) and limited grip in his left hand. At first, I researched vacuum pumps for erectile dysfunction cases but he would be unable to remove the tube at the appropriate time. In order to protect his dignity and privacy, I wondered if you have any experience with this clientele and/or ideas on hands free tools that I could look at.

    • Sarah Stromsdorfer, OTR/L July 10, 2020   Reply →

      Hi Janine, that’s a tough one! I personally haven’t encountered this situation and I’m not super savvy on these devices, but I’d love to hear from any other OT practitioners in the comments here if they’ve run into this what their thoughts are.

    • Samantha July 14, 2020   Reply →

      There are all kinds of male masterbation toy/cup/sleeve/pocket. These types of personal massagers have a lot of names. They come in a varity of shapes and designs. Some are realistic looking and others can have discrect designs. There are also kinds that have vibration functions. Here are a few that I found. I hope this helps.



      • Sarah Stromsdorfer, OTR/L July 15, 2020   Reply →

        Thanks, Samantha!

  • Parishh.L, OT/live-in April 24, 2022   Reply →

    I would’ve never known if I didn’t look at the PLISST model ,my client is male and pansexual. Im always generous to ask what it is he needs. I have my own personal business that I take care of outside of the care of my client sexual wise I am at all appalled to his sexual orientation or preference. I do want to help in every way I can without eve having to be reliever for the client in a sexual Manner. My question today is how do I deal with a client that wants a same sex relationship I am a man that has a wife and children, Im going to hell for partaking in any act of a same sex sexual relationship with my client, am I obligated and must I have any parts of the matter to relieve my client of his stress or not?

    • Sarah Stromsdorfer, OTR/L April 24, 2022   Reply →

      Hello, I’m a bit confused by your question; is it your patient that has stress about his sexual orientation or are you as his OT feeling stress about it?

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